Sejarah Superman


Superman is a fictional comic book superhero widely considered to be one of the most famous and popular of such characters[1] and an American cultural icon.[2][3][4][5] Created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian-born artist Joe Shuster in 1932 while both were living in Cleveland, Ohio, and sold to Detective Comics, Inc. in 1938, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 (June 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, television programs, films, newspaper strips, and video games. With the success of his adventures, Superman helped to create the superhero genre and establish its primacy within the American comic book.[2]
The origin story of Superman relates that he was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton, before being rocketed to Earth as an infant by his scientist father moments before the planet’s destruction. Adopted and raised by a Kansas farmer and his wife, the child is raised as Clark Kent, and imbued with a strong moral compass. Very early he started to display superhuman abilities, which upon reaching maturity he resolved to use for the benefit of humanity.
While referred to less flatteringly as "the big blue Boy Scout" by some of his fellow superheroes,[6] Superman is hailed as "The Man of Steel," "The Man of Tomorrow," and "The Last Son of Krypton," by the general public within the comics. As Clark Kent, Superman lives among humans as a "mild-mannered reporter" for the Metropolis newspaper The Daily Planet (the Daily Star in original stories). There he works alongside reporter Lois Lane, with whom he is romantically linked. This relationship has been consummated by marriage on numerous occasions across varying media, and the union is now firmly established within the current mainstream comics continuity.
The character’s supporting cast, powers, and trappings have slowly expanded throughout the years. Superman’s backstory was altered to allow for adventures as Superboy, and other survivors of Krypton were created, including Supergirl and Krypto the Superdog. In addition, Superman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film. The motion picture Superman Returns was released in 2006, with a performance at the international box office which exceeded expectations.[7] In the seven decades since Superman’s debut, the character has been revamped and updated several times.

A significant overhaul occurred in 1986, when John Byrne recreated the character, reducing Superman’s powers and erasing several characters from the canon, in a move that attracted media attention. Press coverage was again garnered in the 1990s with The Death of Superman, a storyline which saw the character killed and later restored to life.
Superman has also held fascination for scholars, with cultural theorists, commentators, and critics alike exploring the character’s impact and role in the United States and the rest of the world. Umberto Eco discussed the mythic qualities of the character in the early 1960s, and Larry Niven has pondered the implications of a sexual relationship the character might enjoy with Lois Lane.[8] The character’s ownership has often been the subject of dispute, with Siegel and Shuster twice suing for the return of legal ownership. The copyright is again currently in dispute, with changes in copyright law allowing Siegel’s wife and daughter to claim a share of the copyright, a move DC parent company Warner Bros. disputes.
Creations and Conception

Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster first created a bald telepathic villain bent on dominating the entire world. He appeared in the short story "The Reign of the Super-Man" from Science Fiction #3, a science fiction fanzine that Siegel published in 1933.[9] Siegel re-wrote the character in 1933 as a hero, bearing little or no resemblance to his villainous namesake, and began a six-year quest to find a publisher. Titling it The Superman, Siegel and Shuster offered it to Consolidated Book Publishing, who had published a 48-page black-and-white comic book entitled Detective Dan: Secret Operative No. 48. Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Consolidated never again published comic books. Shuster took this to heart and burned all pages of the story, the cover surviving only because Siegel rescued it from the fire. Siegel and Shuster each compared this character to Slam Bradley, an adventurer the pair had created for Detective Comics #1 (May 1939).[10]
By 1934, the pair had once more re-envisioned the character. He became more of a hero in the mythic tradition, inspired by such characters as Samson and Hercules,[11] who would right the wrongs of Siegel and Shuster’s times, fighting for social justice and against tyranny. It was at this stage the costume was introduced, Siegel later recalling that they created a "kind of costume and let’s give him a big S on his chest, and a cape, make him as colorful as we can and as distinctive as we can."[12] The design was based in part on the costumes worn by characters in outer space settings published in pulp magazines, as well as comic strips such as Flash Gordon,[13] and also partly suggested by the traditional circus strong-man outfit.[12][14] However, the cape has been noted as being markedly different from the Victorian tradition. Gary Engle described it as without "precedent in popular culture" in Superman at Fifty: The Persistence of a Legend.[15] The pants-over-tights outfit was soon established as the basis for many future superhero outfits. This third version of the character was given extraordinary abilities, although this time of a physical nature as opposed to the mental abilities of the villainous Superman.[12]

The locale and the hero’s civilian names were inspired by the movies, Shuster said in 1983. "Jerry created all the names. We were great movie fans, and were inspired a lot by the actors and actresses we saw. As for Clark Kent, he combined the names of Clark Gable and Kent Taylor. And Metropolis, the city in which Superman operated, came from the Fritz Lang movie [Metropolis, 1927], which we both loved".[16]
Although they were by now selling material to comic book publishers, notably Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson’s National Allied Publishing, the pair decided to feature this character in a comic strip format, rather than in the longer comic book story format that was establishing itself at this time. They offered it to both Max Gaines, who passed, and to United Feature Syndicate, who expressed interest initially but finally rejected the strip in a letter dated February 18, 1937. However, in what historian Les Daniels describes as "an incredibly convoluted turn of events", Max Gaines ended up positioning the strip as the lead feature in Wheeler-Nicholson’s new publication, Action Comics. Vin Sullivan, editor of the new book, wrote to the pair requesting that the comic strips be refashioned to suit the comic book format, requesting "eight panels a page". However Siegel and Shuster ignored this, utilizing their own experience and ideas to create page layouts, with Siegel also identifying the image used for the cover of Action Comics #1 (June 1938), Superman’s first appearance.[17]
to be continued...
From : Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Superman merupakan buku komik fiksi superhero yang secara luas dianggap sebagai salah satu karakter yang terkenal dan populer dan merupakan sebuah ikon Amerika. Diciptakan oleh penulis Amerika Jerry Siegel dan artis ( baca : seniman ) kelahiran Kanada, Joe Shuster di tahun 1932, saat mereka tinggal di Cleveland, Ohio dan di jual untuk Detective Comics, Inc. Pada tahun 1938,karakter ini muncul pertama kali dalam Action Comics # 1(Juni 1938) dan sesudah itu muncul dalam berbagai serial radio, program-program televisi, film-film, kolom surat kabar dan video game. Dengan kesuksesan pertualangannya, Superman menolong menciptakan genre superhero dan membangun keunggulannya di dalam buku komik Amerika.

Cerita asli Superman berkaitan dengan kelahirannya sebagai Kal El di planet Krypton,sebelum di kirim ke bumi saat masih bayi oleh ayahnya yang seorang ilmuwan sebelum planetnya rusak. Diadopsi dan dibesarkan oleh petani Kansas dan istrinya, si kecil tumbuh menjadi Clark Kent, dan dikarunia dengan pedoman moral yang kuat. Di usia mudanya dia mulai menampilkan kekuatan super,yang digunakannya untuk mengatasi masalah kemanusiaan.
Sementara dia dijluki sebagai " Si Pramuka Besar Berkostum Biru"oleh para rekan superheronya, Superman dikenal sebagai "The Man of Steel","The Man of Tommorrow" dan "The Last Son of Krypton," oleh masyarakat di dalam cerita komik. Sebagai Clark Kent, Superman hidup di antara manusia sebagai "reporter berwatak halus" untuk koran Metropolis The Daily Planet (the Daily Star di cerita aslinya). Di sana dia bekerja dengan reporter Lois Lane,yang dengannya dia mempunyai hubungan romantis. Hubungan ini disempurnakan dengan pernikahan dalam sejumlah upacara lintas media, dan persatuan ini sekarang dipertahankan dengan kuat di dalam aliran terbaru di dalam kelanjutan cerita komiknya.
Karakter peran pembantu, kekuatan, dan segala jenis pernak-pernik lain telah secara perlahan dikembangkan tahun demi tahun. Latar belakang cerita Superman diubah untuk membuka pertualangannya sebagai Superboy, dan orang Krypton lain yang selamat diciptakan, termasuk Supergirl, dan Anjing Super Krypto. Sebagai tambahan, Superman telah didaftarkan dan diadaptasi ke dalam berbagai bentuk media, dari radio ke televisi dan film. Film Superman Returns di release di 2006, dengan penampilan box office internasional yang melebihi harapan. Dalam tujuh dekade sejak debutnya, Superman dirubah dan diperbaharui selama beberapa kali.
Pemeriksaan yang sangat teliti terjadi di 1986, saat John Byrne menciptakan ulang karakter, mengurangi kekuatan Superman dan menghapus beberapa karakter dari "aturan", dalam tujuan untuk meraih perhatian media. Pers meliput lagi saat di 1990 muncul The Death of Superman, jalan ceritanya menunjukkan bahwa karakter ini tewas dan kemudian kembali hidup.
Superman juga telah mempesona para sarjana, dengan teori budaya, komentator, dan kritik-kritik seperti menjelajahi dampak karakter ini dan perannya di Amerika Serikat, dan bagian lain dunia. Umberto Eco mendiskusikan kualitas dongeng dari sang tokoh di awal 1960-an dan Larry Niven mempertimbangkan dampak hubungan seksual yang mungkin dimiliki sang tokoh dengan Lois Lane. Kepemilikan sang tokoh telah menjadi topik perdebatan yang sering terjadi, dengan Siegel dan Shuster dua kali menuntut kembali hak kepemilikan legal. Hak cipta adalah hal yang lagi-lagi diperdebatkan, dengan perubahan hukum hak cipta memungkinkan istri Siegel dan puterinya mengklaim pembagian hak cipta, gerakan yang dipertentangkan oleh induk perusahaan DC, Warner Bros.
Sejarah Penciptaan
Jerry Siegel dan Joe Shuster pertama menciptakan penjahat botak dengan kemampuan telepatik yang ahli mendominasi seluruh dunia. Dia muncul dalam cerita singkat "The Reign of Super-Man"dari Science Fiction #3, majalah pengetahuan fiksi yang diterbitkan Siegel di 1933. Siegel menulis ulang karakter ini di 1933 sebagai pahlawan, mempertegas sedikit akan tidak ada kemiripan dengan kekejiannya terdahulu, dan selama enam tahun melakukan pencarian untuk menemukan penerbit. Menamai karakter itu The Supeman, Siegel dan Shuster menawarkannya kepada Consolidated Book Publishing, yang telah menerbitkan buku komik hitam putih sebanyak 48 halaman berjudul Detective Dan : Secret Operative No. 48. Walaupun duo ini menerima surat yang memberi semangat, Consolidated tidak pernah menerbitkan buku komik lagi. Shuster memasukkan hal ini dalam hati dan membakar semua halaman cerita tersebut, cover buku ini selamat hanya karena Siegel menyelamatkannya dari api. Siegel dan Shuster masing-masing membandingkannya dengan karakter Sam Bradley, sebuah petualangan yang diciptakan sang pasangan untuk Detective Comics #1 (Mei 1939).
Di tahun 1934, pasangan itu sekali lagi memimpikan karakter ini. Dia menjadi lebih dari sekedar pahlawan dalam tradisi dongeng, terinspirasi dari karakter semacam Samson dan Hercules,yang akan mengoreksi hal salah dalam zaman Siegel dan Shuster, bertarung untuk keadilan sosial dan melawan tirani. Ini adalah tahap dimana kostumnya dibuat, Siegel kemudian menyebut kembali bahwa mereka menciptakan "semacam kostum dan membiarkan karakter ini mempunyai logo S besar di dadanya, dan sebuah jubah, membuat dia berwarna dan spesial sejauh yang kami bisa". Desain ini didasarkan bagian pada kostum yang dipakai oleh karakter dalam setting luar angkasa yang diterbitkan dalam majalah murahan, seperti komik strip Flash Gordon, dan pakaian yang dipakai oleh orang-orang sirkus. Akan tetapi,jubahnya telah dibuat berbeda dengan gaya Victoria. Gary Engle menggambarkannya sebagai tanpa" bisa diteladani dalam budaya populer" dalam Superman at Fifty : The Persistence of a Legend. Pakaian dengan celana ketat dengan segera menjadi contoh untuk pakaian para superhero di masa mendatang. Versi ketiga dari karakter ini di berikan kekuatan luar biasa, walaupun di waktu itu adalah waktu yang secara fisik berlawanan dengan kemampuan mental dari Superman yang jahat.
Nama samaran sang superhero terinspirasi dari film, Shuster mengatakan di 1983," Jerry menciptakan segala macam nama. Kami adalah penggemar berat film, dan terinspirasi dari banyak aktor dan aktris yang kami lihat. Seperti Clark Kent, dia adalah kombinasi dari nama Clark Gable dan Kent Taylor. Dan Metropolis, kota dimana Superman bekerja, datang dari film Fritz Lang (Metropolis,1927), yang kami berdua sukai."
Walaupun mereka sekarang menjual materi kepada penerbit komik, khususnya National Alloed Publishing milik Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, pasangan ini memutuskan untuk menampilkan karakter ini dalam format strip komik, daripada format cerita buku komik yang panjang yang saat itu marak. Mereka menawarkannya baik kepada Max Gaines, yang menolak, dan kepada United Feature Syndicate, yang menunjukkan ketertarikan tetapi akhirnya menolak strip ini dalam surat bertanggal 18 Februari 1937. Akan tetapi, dalam apa yang sejarawan Les Daniels gambarkan sebagai " putaran kejadian sulit yang sukar dipercaya", Max Gaines memakai strip ini sebagai feature utama dalam penerbitan baru milik Wheelere-Nicholson, Action Comics. Vin Sullivan, editor buku baru itu,menulis kepada pasangan ini permintaan supaya merubah formatnya menjadi format buku komik, meminta " halaman delapan panel" Akan tetapi, Siegel dan Shsuter mengabaikan ini,memanfaatkan pengalaman dan ide mereka sendiri untuk menciptakan layout halaman, dengan Siegel juga mengambil ciri gambar yang digunakan sebagai cover Action Comics #1(Juni 1938), penampilan pertama Superman.

Sumber artikel : Wikipedia, Ensiklopedia Gratis


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